Transcription and Translation: an overview

Remember this Mother's Day to give thanks to your mom for this enzyme.

Remember this Mother’s Day to give thanks to your mom for this enzyme.

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17 thoughts on “Transcription and Translation: an overview

  1. Transcription and translation are essential in the process of making proteins. Both of them contribute to reading each and every gene and producing a sequence of amino acids, which make up proteins. In transcription the gene sequence is copied into mRNA. Then, in translation the mRNA is “translated” into amino acids to produce proteins. There are codons which indicate when the amino acid sequence starts and stops. The end result is a newly made protein.

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  2. If it wasn’t for transcription and translation we wouldn’t have proteins. They are very complex and complicated but are very important to our daily lives. It is constantly happening in our bodies. This process consist of different types of RNA (mRNA tRNA and rRNA). A ribosomal RNA, mRNA, and tRNA combine to translate the amino acids in mRNA. The process starts with the start codon (methionine) to translate amino acids and forming a polypeptide chain. In the stop codon, the types of RNA seperate and end up with a protein.

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  3. Transcription is the process of making an mRNA molecule. This molecule leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm where it directs the synthesis of the protein it encodes. On the other hand, translation is the process of translating the sequence of mRNA molecules to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. The genetic code describes the relationship between the sequence of base pairs in a gene and the corresponding amino acid sequence that it encodes. The ribosome reads the sequence of mRNA in groups of 3 bases to assemble the protein.

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  4. This is one of the many processes that a cell undergoes, this demonstrates that the cell is a very complex structure, it can make all of the needed materials for all its processes. For example in protein synthesis it makes every needed organelle such as the mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, and the ribosome. It all comes from the nucleus and the DNA inside it, RNA is made by replicating one strand of DNA then it can be used in different ways depending on what is needed in the cell. RNA can be made into mRNA, the instructions on how to make proteins or peptide bond; tRNA, to add the amino acids needed to make a protein by matching the codons with the anticodons from the mRNA; or rRNA, which is what the ribosome is made up of and where the mRNA goes through to be translated and matched with the tRNA.

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  5. Transcription and translation are the two main steps that make up the process of protein synthesis. Since proteins are vital for life, this process is very important. Without it, life would not be possible.

    This process starts in the nucleus with the transcription of the information contained in DNA into an mRNA molecule. This molecule then exits the nucleus and travels into a ribosome that is either in the Rough ER or in the cytoplasm. Once in the ribosome, the codons in the mRNA molecule are translated into a polypeptide, when they are paired with the tRNA carrying the complementary anticodon that codifies for a particular peptide. As the process continues, the peptides are joined by peptide bonds and when a stop codon is reached, the translation stops and the resulting polypeptide is finished. Then, the resulting polypeptide is used in other parts of the cell.

    It is amazing what these small machines do, and their importance in life. Basically all life would be impossible without these molecules. An error would have a great cost, but thanks to the variety of codons for a single amino acid, these errors are greatly reduced.

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  6. Transcription and translation are processes needed to create proteins. They are vital. Without them, we humans wouldn’t be able to function or even be alive. In summary, mRNA is transcribed from DNA, and then, mRNA translates into proteins. Enzymes, which are proteins, are needed to synthetize the rest of the organic compounds that constitute the building blocks of our cells. Previously, I had no knowledge about what this processes were and their importance, it’s essential for everyone to understand and appreciate the importance of this processes.

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  7. This reminded me about what I learned in class about the importance of ribosomes, not just in protein synthesis, but for everything. The video explained how protein synthesis starts in the nucleus by transcribing the parts of DNA into three specific RNAs and then uniting again in order to start translation so that protein can be created. It is interesting to see how small things like DNA is really a big deal for life and if it were not for these nucleotides, life is impossible. This site shows in more detail about what is transcription and translation: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/ribosomes-transcription-and-translation-14120660

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  8. its impressive hoe the DNA that makes up the human genome can be subdivided into information that we all call genes. Each gene is encoded with a unique protein that performs a specialized function in the cell. In the cells they use a process that requires two steps that are transcription and translation to read each gene and produce the string of amino acids that make up the protein. In transcription we can say that it is the process in which the information in the DNA is copied into the messenger RNA for protein production , translation in another words is the sequence of codons on the mRNA that determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein, which in turn determines the structure and function of the protein, without proteins we are worthless. Proteins are very important in the human being.

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  9. Transcription is the process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence. Translation is the process that goes after to build proteins. These two processes go hand by hand and are essential for the making of amino acids for our bodies. First, transcription takes place in the nucleus and creates mRNA which is the copy from the DNA segment. This can get out of the cell to the cytoplasm and begin the next stage which is translation. In translation, the mRNA is read by a ribosome and with the help of tRNA it is translated into an amino acid by base-pairing.

    http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-transcription-and-vs-translation-in-dna/

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  10. Transcription and translation are processes that need each other to complete the work efficiently. Transcription is the process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence. This copy, called a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, leaves the cell nucleus and enters the cytoplasm, where it directs the synthesis of the protein, which it encodes. Translation is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. The genetic code describes the relationship between the sequence of base pairs in a gene and the corresponding amino acid sequence that it encodes. In the cell cytoplasm, the ribosome reads the sequence of the mRNA in groups of three bases to assemble the protein.

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  11. Proteins are essential for humans because they take on many functions for living organisms such as giving support, making structures, and acting as enzymes. Humans contain the information for the specific proteins they need in their DNA. Proteins are created by the three RNA molecules in transcription and translation. Transcription, as explained in the video and in class, is the first process in which a strand of DNA is copied to form an mRNA. This mRNA then goes off to the cytoplasm where it binds with an rRNA. tRNAs then arrive and bring peptides according to the codons of the mRNA which are a set of three nucleotides. The process continues with the elongation of the polypeptide and when termination occurs the RNAs disassemble and there is a newly formed polypeptide. As seen, this is a very complex process, but our bodies have the capability of doing it and make about one mistake for every billion nucleotide. This accuracy is due to the repair functions in the polymerase, but for those few tiny errors that occur, there’s no need to panic. There are various codons that signal for the same peptide. So this proofs that our bodies are complex yet efficient. The link below expands more on this topic:
    https://www.genome.gov/27552603/transcription-and-translation/

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  12. Transcription and translation are absolutely fundamental in our body. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template where the code in the DNA is converted into a complementary RNA code. Translation is the synthesis of a protein from an mRNA template where the code in the mRNA is converted into an amino acid sequence in a protein. The importance of ribosomes is perfectly shown in both of these complex processes and we notice how simply astonishing they are. Ribosomes are the protein builders or the protein synthesizers of the cell. They are like construction men who connect one amino acid at a time and build long chains. Ribosomes are special because they are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While a structure such as a nucleus is only found in eukaryotes, every cell needs ribosomes to manufacture proteins.

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